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Massachusetts Eye and Ear
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Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery


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Goiter is an abnormally enlarged thyroid gland. It was once a common condition in the United States due to iodine deficiency, but the increased use of iodized salt has virtually eradicated this problem. Goiter cases today are most often a result of the coalescence of benign thyroid nodules, which can grow and sometimes multiply over time.

Goiter tends to occur randomly, but it can also be associated with some medications or with other thyroid conditions. Patients with goiter may notice a visible, cosmetic distortion of the neck, the sensation of a lump in the throat when swallowing, and/or actual difficulty swallowing. They may also have difficulty breathing due to compression of the windpipe. If the goiter extends from the neck into the upper chest, it is termed a substernal goiter.

Our radiologists and thyroid surgeons work together to determine the best course of action based on their evaluations of the patient's goiter.

4Common Symptoms

  • Visible, cosmetic distortion of the neck
  • Sensation of a lump in the throat when swallowing
  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Breathing difficulties

Diagnosis and Treatment

To ensure a proper diagnosis is made, it is important to assess the function of the thyroid gland through comprehensive blood testing, as sometimes goiter can represent hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease).

In addition to blood testing and an appropriate physical examination of the thyroid, voice box, and neck, a thyroid surgeon must assess the exact degree of enlargement of the thyroid and its impact on the neck and upper chest structures. This is often accomplished through ultrasonographic evaluation and CT scanning of the neck and upper chest.

Here at Mass. Eye and Ear, our goiter patients are evaluated by thyroid specialists and our Radiology Department, which has extensive experience with radiographic evaluation of the thyroid gland, neck, and structures in the chest. Both departments work together to determine the best course of action based on these evaluations.

Meet Our Team

The Thyroid and Parathyroid Endocrine Surgery Division is staffed by surgeons, radiologists, and other medical specialists skilled in the evaluation and treatment of problems of the thyroid and parathyroid. Our combination of medical expertise allows us to treat patients of all thyroid and parathyroid conditions.

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