The Otopathology Laboratory welcomes trainees, clinicians and researchers to explore the following educational and technical resources, which include downloadable 3-D models, a simulator for temporal bone surgery, a library of more than 1,500 images from pathologic specimens, webcasts of our conferences, and more.
The procurement, process and study of human temporal bones is a time-consuming and costly research endeavor. Here, we offer resources that describe how to remove temporal bones and process them for standard light microscopy, as well as other methods of study. You will also find links to our National Temporal Bone and Mouse Cochlea Gene databases for further resources.
We welcome trainees, clinicians and researchers to explore the following resources, which include downloadable 3-D models, a simulator for temporal bone surgery, a library of more than 1,500 images from pathologic specimens, webcasts of our conferences and more.
The human temporal bone contains a large number of complex structures within a small space. This complex anatomy is a challenge for students in the basic science and medical disciplines. Because computer-based, 3D virtual models can be valuable tools for teaching and learning this anatomy, we have developed virtual models of the human temporal bone and made them available as downloadable freeware for teaching and educational purposes.
Available models include
- Temporal Bone Anatomy: Developed from archival histologic sections of a 14-year-old male, this model depicts the majority of the structures of the external, middle, and inner ears, along with the mastoid air spaces.
- Round Window Model: A more detailed subset of the Temporal Bone Model. This depicts the detailed anatomy of the round window membrane and adjacent structures of the cochlea.
- Incudostapedial Joint Model: Another detailed subset of the Temporal Bone Model that depicts anatomy of the distal incus, incudostapedial joint, and head of stapes.
- The Visible Ear: Developed from a library of visual images from an 85-year-old female, this model contains the entire human temporal bone and surrounding structures of the skull base.
The Visible Ear Simulator (VES) is a project initiated by Mads Sølvsten Sørensen, MD, aimed at creating a virtual tool for providing training in surgical procedures involving the temporal bone. The VES software is available as a free download.
When combined with a commercially available haptic device and a standard PC, the VES provides an experience of drilling a temporal bone that is realistic, sophisticated, and interactive. The user can also identify and interact with various structures, such as the mastoid bone, sigmoid sinus, dura, and facial nerve, thereby enhancing the simulation of real-life surgery. The VES project is a result of a collaboration between Alexandra Institute and Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The otopathology webcasts are recordings of the Otopathology Conferences hosted on a quarterly basis at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. Each webcast is approximately 60 minutes in length. If you would like to be added to the email list for upcoming conferences, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
View our upcoming Otopathology Conference dates:
- January 18, 2023
- March 22, 2023
- May 17, 2023
- October 18, 2023
View our most-recent webcast from October 2022.
View recordings of past webcasts
- May 2022: Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Otopathology in an adult patient
- March 2022: Labyrinthitis Ossificans
- January 2022: DFNA9 Hearing Loss and Balance Disorder
- January 2021: Charge syndrome: Otopathology and radiologic correlates
- March 2021: Meniere's disease: Endolymphatic shunt surgery and MRI diagnostics
- May 2021: Cochlear nerve schwannoma and otosclerosis
- October 2021: Facial schwannoma
- January 2020: Enlarged vestibular aqueduct and incomplete partition type II
- March 2020: Immune-mediated hearing loss
- October 2020: Autosomal Dominant Sensorineural Hearing Loss
- January 2019: Meniere's disease with endolymphatic sac decompression, intratympanic gentamicin injections, and suboccipital vestibular neurectomy
- March 2019: Kleefstra syndrome
- May 2019:Congenital anomalies of the ossicles
- October 2019: Otopathology of head injury
- January 2018: Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone
- May 2018: Asymptomatic schwannoma of the facial nerve
- October 2018: Otopathology of the CHARGE Association
- January 2017: Rapidly progressive sensorineural hearing loss
- March 2017: Surgical pathology of the temporal bone following resection of an acoustic neuroma
- May 2017: Alport syndrome
- October 2017: Lateral canal fenestration procedure for otosclerosis
- January 2016: Aberrant internal carotid artery
- March 2016: Angiosarcoma of the temporal bone
- May 2016: Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a surgical mastoid bowl
- October 2016: Cerebellar ataxia-neuropathy-vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS)
- March 2015: Perineural spread of squamous cell carcinoma in the facial nerve
- May 2015: Role of immunostaining in quantitative otopathology
- October 2015: Surgical pathology following labyrinthectomy for Meniere's syndrome
- January 2014: Type II collagenopathy
- March 2014: Otosclerosis
- May 2014: Otopathology of a cochlear implant
- October 2014: Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and cysts of the internal auditory canals
- January 2013: A 78-year-old man with bilateral conductive hearing loss
- March 2013: Wegener's granulomatosis
- October 2013: Neural presbycusis
- January 2012: An 83-year-old woman with otosclerosis who underwent a stapedotomy
- March 2012: A 44-year-old woman with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) mutation in the XPA DNA repair gene and a bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss
- May 2012: A 74-year-old patient with bilateral mixed hearing loss, bilateral stapedectomy and bilateral cochlear implants
- September 2012: A 94-year-old woman with a history of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo
- November 2012: Dandy's Syndrome (bilateral vestibular areflexia and oscillopsia)
- January 2011: A 62-year-old woman with superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome
- March 2011: A 53-year-old man with post-lingual deafness due to auditory neuropathy caused by a hereditary disorder (Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome)
- May 2011: A 53-year-old man with bilateral Meniere's syndrome
- October 2011: A newborn child with sensorineural hearing loss caused by selective loss of inner hair cells
- December 2011: A 90-year-old woman with episodic vertigo who had undergone a cochleosacculotomy procedure
- January 2010: Features cases of the nonsyndromic deafness, DFNA9, including clinical features, histopathology and genetics
- March 2010: A 77-year-old man with otosclerosis who underwent a stapes mobilization in the right ear and a stapedectomy in the left ear
- May 2010: A 51-year-old woman with hearing loss due to Susac's syndrome
- July 2010: A 52-year-old woman with hearing loss due to MELAS syndrome
- September 2010: A 57-year-old man with profound hearing loss due to superficial siderosis; he was treated with a cochlear implant
- January 2008: A 77-year-old man with history of noise exposure and accelerated presbycusis
- February 2008: A 100-year-old woman with unoperated acoustic neuroma
- March 2008: A 74-year-old woman with otosclerosis and stapedectomy
- April 2008: A 24-year-old man with sensorineural hearing loss due to Wolfram's syndrome
- May 2008: An 88-year-old woman with sensorineural hearing loss due to strial atrophy
- September 2008: A 68-year-old woman with progressive hearing loss due to cochlear atrophy
- November 2008: An 88-year-old man with hearing loss due to a temporal bone fracture.
Read a few of our most-recent studies about findings in the Otopathology Laboratory.
- Raufer S, Idoff C, Zosuls A, Marino G, Blanke N, Bigio IJ, O’Malley JT, Burgess BJ, Nadol JB, Guinan JJ Jr, Nakajima HH. Anatomy of the Human Osseous Spiral Lamina and Cochlear Partition Bridge: Relevance for Cochlear Partition Motion.J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2020 Mar 12.
- Chen JX, Nourmahnad A, O’Malley J, Reinshagen K, Nadol JB Jr, Quesnel AM. Otopathology in CHARGE syndrome. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2020 Jan 13;5(1):157-162.
- Handzel O, Ungar OJ, Lee DJ, Nadol JB Jr. Temporal bone histopathology in MELAS syndrome. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2020 Jan 7;5(1):152-156.
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